Edward Tolman was one of the first behaviorists to introduce a cognitive perspective on learning and behavior. He introduced “purposive behaviorism” as a branch of psychology that studies behaviors as being goal-oriented, rather than just stimulus-response (see his 1932 book: Purposive Behavior in Animals and Men). Tolman is most well known for his studies on latent learning and cognitive maps. In 1930, Tolman and Honzik demonstrated that rats learn, albeit slowly, without having to operate directly on a stimulus response (a reward at the end of a maze). Tolman also described cognitive maps (mental representations one uses to navigate their environment) in rats that were able to correctly navigate their way to the food source in a maze despite being placed at different entry points to the maze. He argued that rats had formed a “map” by using multiple cues from the space that allowed them to effectively find the food.

Tolman, E. C. & Honzik, C. H. (1930). Introduction and removal of reward, and maze performance in rats. University of California Publications in Psychology, 4, 257-275.

Tolman, E. C. (1948). Cognitive maps in rats and men. Psychological Review, 55, 189-208. http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Tolman/Maps/maps.htm

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