Frustration-Aggression hypothesis states that frustration occurs from the blocking of goal attainment, and that frustration is a root cause of aggression. This theory has been used as an explanation for aggressive behaviors, violence, etc in both human and nonhuman animals. Frustration is supposed to be a required precursor to aggression. However, aggression does not necessarily always follow from frustration. Debate resulted from unclear definitions of frustration as well as other critiques of the research.

Miller, N. E. (1941). I. The frustration-aggression hypothesis. Psychological review, 48(4), 337.

Berkowitz, L. (1989). Frustration-aggression hypothesis: Examination and reformulation. Psychological bulletin, 106(1), 59.

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