Framing effects occur when the way in which a decision is presented impacts the response made. For example, when a decision is portrayed as having potential for gains (i.e. currency, etc), people are more likely to approach with caution and use conservative decision making. However, presenting the same issue with the potential for losses engenders more risk taking. Framing effects have been studied in connection to risky decision making such as gambling and consumer behavior.

Steiger, A., & Kühberger, A. (2018). A meta-analytic re-appraisal of the framing effect. Zeitschrift für Psychologie.

Levin, I. P., Gaeth, G. J., Schreiber, J., & Lauriola, M. (2002). A new look at framing effects: Distribution of effect sizes, individual differences, and independence of types of effects. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 88(1), 411-429.

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