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Processing directly influenced by a stimulus is often described as bottom-up processing. The basic features of stimuli are assembled and integrated into preexisting knowledge. In contrast, processing that is directly influenced by preexisting knowledge (e.g., past experience, expectations) is often described as top-down processing. For example, when viewing the figure, you may have read the phrase “Paris in the Spring” -  evidence of your expectation (i.e., top-down processing) dominating the actual basic feature information of the stimulus (i.e., bottom-up processing).

Awh, E., Belopolsky, A. V., & Theeuwes, J. (2012). Top-down versus bottom-up attentional control: A failed theoretical dichotomy. Trends in cognitive sciences, 16(8), 437-443.

Sobel, K. V., Gerrie, M. P., Poole, B. J., & Kane, M. J. (2007). Individual differences in working memory capacity and visual search: The roles of top-down and bottom-up processing. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14(5), 840-845.

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