To follow up on the categorization post a bit…

Eleanor Rosch conducted a series of studies initially investigating the structure of color categories (i.e., are certain colors better examples of a particular color category than others?). Extending previous theories such as Wittgenstein's theory of family resemblance (i.e., concepts with overlapping features), Rosch defined “prototypical” category members as stimuli that are considered to be the most central, or the most representative, member of a category. For example, when considering the category “bird”, we may find a robin or crow to be more prototypical of this category than a penguin (a peripheral, atypical category memory.

Rosch, E.H. (1973): "Natural categories", Cognitive Psychology 4, 328-350.

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