"The brain?!", you might think. "That wrinkly piece of meat?!"
That's the one! Where we find brains, we find cognition. Can real or artificial beings evidence cognition-like outputs without the big cluster of neurons and fluids we recognize as a brain? Sure! But our cognitive psychology, as much as it purports to be a study of mind(s) writ large, is really and truly the study of the outputs of a primate or primate-like nervous system. These outputs, the behavior and cognition and representation that psychologists spend careers studying, are a rich field of study - someone could come up with at least 100 interesting things in this field I'd guess. But for those seeking additional richness, a sibling field of cognitive neuroscience attempts to make the links between brain regions and cognition even more discrete. What inferences can you draw about cognition when you see different brain regions lighting up in an fMRI? Yeah, okay, but what about any good ones? Or if two different brain regions are seemingly involved in some cognition (e.g., memory), does that necessarily mean that there are two processes involved? But... why?